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Overview Of Cataract Surgery

Cataract: It is a clouding of the lens of the eye which leads to a decrease in eye vision. Cataracts frequently develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes.

Symptoms

  • Blurry or double vision
  • Faded colors
  • Night vision
  • Halos around light
  • Trouble with bright lights
  • Trouble seeing at night

Risks Factors

  • Cataracts cause half of all cases of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide.
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking Tobacco
  • Prolonged exposure to sunlight
  • Alcohol Intake.

Benefits

  • Benefits – for working, reading, driving and so on.
  • Improve the quality of life with cataract surgery
  • Cataract surgery may help you live longer.
  • Improved self-confidence
  • Decreased reactions

Procedures Of Cataract Surgery

 Cataract surgery :  Is also known as “lens replacement surgery”, is the removal of the natural lens of the eye that has developed an opacification, which is introduced to as a cataract, and it is replacement with an intraocular lens.

Cataract surgery is a process where to eye lens are removed, in many cases, replace it with an artificial lens. Usually, your eye is clear visible with the lens. A cataract can cause the lens to become cloudy, which finally affects your vision. Cataract surgery is very common. This procedure is generally a safe.

Two main types of surgical procedures: 

  1. Phacoemulsification: It is a modern surgery in which the internal lens of eye is  aspirated from the eye. To maintain the anterior chamber aspirated fluids are replaced with irrigation of balanced salt solution.
  2. Two different types of extractions:           
    • Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) 
    • Intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE)
  • Extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) : It involves the removal of almost entire natural lens while the elastic lens capsules (posterior capsule) are left intact to allow implantation of an intraocular lens. It involves the lens through a large (usually 10–12 mm) incision made in the cornea or sclera.Pupillary dilation- cycloplegic / mydriatic drops, NSAID (topical /oral) these agents help to maintain dilations during surgery.
  • Intracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) : It  requires the removal of the lens and the surrounding lens capsule in one piece. The procedure has a relatively increased rate of risks due to the large incision needed and pressure placed on the vitreous body. After removal of lens, an artificial plastic lens (an intraocular lens implant) can be placed in either the anterior chamber or sutured into the sulcus.

 Intraocular lenses: 

 After the removal of the cataract, an IOL is generally implanted into the eye. Intraocular lenses (IOLs) are the medical devices that are implanted inside the eye to replace by the eye's natural lens when it’s removed during cataract surgery. IOLs also used for a type of vision correction surgery known as refractive lens exchange.

The lens bends (refracts) light rays that enter the eye, helping you to watch or see. Your lens Must be clear. But if you have a cataract, your lens has become cloudy or hazy. Things look hazy, blurry, or less colorful with a cataract. Cataract surgery removes this cloudy (hazy) lens and replaces it with a clear IOL to improve your vision.

Monofocal IOL:  The most common type of lens, which provide vision at one distance only: far, near, or intermediate. Is used with cataract surgery is known as monofocal IOL. 

Patients who choose these lenses over the most developed types will probably need to wear eyeglasses or contact lenses for reading or using the computer. These intraocular lenses are normally spherical, and they have their surface equally curved. 

Multifocal lenses: This lens is one of the latest types of lenses. They are often referred to as "premium" lenses because they are multifocal and accommodative, and allow the patient to see the things at more than one distance, removing the need to wear eyeglasses or contact lenses.

Toric IOLs: For people with astigmatism, there is an IOL known as toric lens. Astigmatism is a refractive error occurred by an uneven curve in your cornea or lens. The toric lens is make to correct that refractive error.

 An intraocular lens implant has only one focal point, but it acts as if it is a multifocal IOL. The intraocular lens was makes with a hinge similar to the mechanics of the eye's natural lens.

However, few cataract surgeons have questioned the benefits of aspheric IOLs, because the contrast sensitivity benefit may not last in older patients.

Some of the recently-launched IOLs are able to provide ultraviolet and blue light protection. The crystalline lens of the eye filters these potentially dangerous rays and many premium IOLs are designed to undertake this task as well. According to a few studies though, these lenses have been associated with reduces in vision quality.

Post Procedures Of Cataract Surgery

The post operative recovery time period is (after removing the cataract) usually short. You must take the prescribed medicines and Eye drops to prevent infection, reduce inflammation and control the eye pressure.  You must need a family member or friend with you to take you home. It is recommended that you need rest your eyes and nap. 

For at least one month, Don’t watch the television and don’t use the mobile or Computers after surgery, Because it can damages to your eyes.

 Because cataract surgery is performed only on one eye at a time, you may notice an imbalance in your vision until the second eye is operated on (from 1–4 weeks later).

 The patient is generally ambulatory on the day of surgery, but is advised to move cautiously and avoid heavy lifting and straining for at least for a month. 

 In all types of surgery, the cataractous lens is removed and replaced with an artificial lens, called as an intraocular lens, which stays permanently in the eye. Intraocular lenses are generally monofocal, correcting for either distance or near vision. Multifocal lenses may be implanted to improve near and distance vision at the same time, but these lenses may increase the chance of unsatisfactory vision.

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