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Overview Of Dental Implants

A dental implant is a surgical component that connects with the bone of the jaw or skull to support the artificial part such as crown, denture, bridge, facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor.

Classification :

  • Depending on the placements with in the tissue -    
    • Epiosteal implants- These implants get their primary bone support by resting on it. 
    • Transosteal implants.           
    • Endosteal impants.
  • Depending on the material which are used-
    • Metallic implants- ex: tially, micro enhanced pure ti, plasma sprayed ti.
    • Nonmetallic implants- ex: ceramic, carbon, alumina, polymer, composite
  • Depending on the design-Screw shaped.

Part of dental implants:- 

    • Implant body
    • Healing screw
    • Healing caps
    • Abutments
    • Impression posts

Symptoms

  • Bad breath.
  • Loose or frail implant.
  • Dull ache on palpation.
  • Red or swelling gums around the implant.
  • Icky taste.
  • Throbbing pain 
  • Discomfort from the area.
  • Exudate (pus) visible from the area.

Risks Factors

  • Damage  or Injury to surrounding structures
  • Infection at the implant site, such as: other teeth or blood vessels
  • Nerve damage which can cause pain, tingling, 
  • numbness in your natural teeth, gums, lips or chin.

Benefits

  • Support for your new teeth.
  • Convenience.
  • Improved appearance.
  • Improved speechwith poor fitting dentures.
  • Improved oral health.
  • Feeling comfort.
  • Dental implants allows to eat your favorite foods.
  • Improved self-esteem.
  • Durability.

Procedures Of Dental Implants

Dental implants are also required in orthodontics to provide anchorage (orthodontic mini implants). Depending on the place the implant may be used to retain either a fixed or removable prosthetic that replaces part of the face

Dental implant surgery is a procedure in which tooth roots are replaced with metal, replaces damaged or missing teeth with artificial teeth that looks and functions like normal teeth. Dental implant surgery can offer an alternative to dentures or bridgework that does not placed fit well.

Dental implant surgery is depends on the type of implant and the condition of your jawbone. But all dental implant surgery occurs in stages and it may involve several procedures. The major benefit of implants is support for your new teeth, a process that requires to the bone to heal tightly around the implant. Because this healing requires time, thisprocess take few months.

Implant Surgery:

  • Coronal portions stays exposed through gingiva the healing period.
  • Top of the implant is completely submerged under gingiva.

Endosseous Implant surgery:  flap design & incision, flap elevation, implant placements, closer of the flap.

Flap design & incision: two types of incisions used.

  • Cristal design: The incision is made along the crest of the ridge, bisecting the existing zone of keratinized mucosa.
  • Remote incision: It is created when bone augmentation is planned to minimize the incident of bone graft exposure.
  • Flap elevation:  Elevated flap may be sutured to the buccal mucosa or the bone to provide a reasonable flat bed for the implant site.
  • Implant placements: the site is checked for their appropriate faciolingual location.
  • Closer Of the flap:Once the implants are screwed in & the cover screws are placed. A synthesis of inverted mattress& interrupted sutures are placed, Flap should be closed without tension.
  • Gingivectomy: Once the flap is positioned facially, the excess tissue coronal to the cover screw is excised this. The cover screw is the removed, the head of the implant is thoroughly cleaned of any soft or hard tissue overgrowth & the healing abutment are placed on the fixture.

Surgical Procedure

Surgical planning. Initialto surgery, careful and detailed planning isneeded to identify vital structures such as the inferior alveolar nerve or the sinus, as well as the shape and dimensions of the bone to properperly orient the implants for the most predictable outcome. Two dimensional radiographs, such as orthopantomographs or periapical are often taken prior to the surgery. 

A “stent” may require some time to facilitate the placement of implants. A surgical stent is an acrylic mouth piece that fits in your mouth with pre- drilled holes to show the position and angle of the implants to be placed.

Basic Procedure : The placement of dental implant needs a preparation into the bone using precision drill to prevent overheating or putting too much pressure on the bone.

Complementary Procedures :

  • Bone grafting for implants- Is done when the bone is too narrow or too short to place an adequate sized implant. Bone grafting helps to increase the width or height of bone.
  • Sinus lift- Our sinuses are located in close proximity to the upper posterior jaw ausing that area to lose bone height. If bone height is not adequate for an implant, the “sinus lift” procedure is necessary in order to increase bone height.

Immediate placement : Sameas two stages implant surgical approach. This implant is placed in such a way that the head of the implant procedures about 2 to 3 mm from the bone crest.

Post Procedures Of Dental Implants

Take the prescribed medicines such as : Antibiotics

Dental implants needs the same care as real teethRemained the patient for good oral hygiene around the implant.

  • Patient should be asked to apply ice packs extra orally for the first 24 hrs.
  • Careful brushing. Brushing your teeth twice a day, using a toothpaste for sensitive teeth if your crown or the teeth around it are sensitive tocold or heat.
  • Patient should have liquid or semi liquids first few days, gradually return to normal diet.
  • Oral hygiene instructions should be given.
  • Flossing daily can help keep all your teeth in tip-top shape.
  • Avoid hard foods and chewing ice or hard foods may cause your crown to crack, especially if you have a porcelain crown.

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